These themes were sometimes religious but were often drawn from familiar stories. An estimated one-fourth of the inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire died in the s and s, which created a loss in both labor and demand.
Text 3 Questions What were some of the main causes of the economic recession that hit Europe in the first half of the s? Some of this brutality is recounted in one of the earliest German novels, Adventures of a Simpleton, by Hans Grimmelshausen, which describes the horrors of the war inflicted on the peasants of Europe.
States required more revenue to support their armies; thus they needed more people to supervise tax collection, supply their soldiers, and to repress the uprisings that resulted from higher taxation.
As a result of the wars over religion, power began to shift from southern and eastern Europe toward the north and west. There were many sieges and numerous incidents of towns being repeatedly sacked as first one side, then the other took control.
It increased the likelihood of food shortages and thereby the prevalence of malnutrition, famine, and disease. Nonreligious subjects were depicted more frequently in the visual arts, and scientists such as Kepler and Galileo sought laws in nature to explain movements in the heavens and on Earth.
Briefly describe the close connection between politics and religious conflict between and Religion also provided new justifications to challenge political authority as French Protestants proclaimed that they had a right to resist a tyrant who worshiped idols.
The document-based question focuses on topics from Like maintaining armies, these courts also required a vast sum of tax money, thereby further increasing the power of the bureaucracy.
During the war, the governments involved shifted decisively from fighting over religion to fighting over state power. Women lost some of their economic independence and many people left their homes to look for better conditions or charity.
These breakthroughs in scientific thought did not, however, completely replace beliefs in magic. The negative impact of declining imports of precious metals did not affect northern countries like England and the Dutch Republic as much as it did Spain, since they were not as dependent upon these resources.
How was it expressed? In France, the battle between Huguenots and Catholics reflected political disputes among noble families-especially the Bourbon and Guise families-for influence over the French monarchy.
These armies were often mercenary, and the states they fought for sometimes left them unpaid and poorly supplied; they therefore ransacked the countryside to support themselves.
A change in the climate toward colder weather contributed to the decline in agriculture.
Because political power and religion were closely intertwined, political motives and religious beliefs were almost inseparable. Text 4 Questions What was secularization?
Many scientists, such as Paracelsus who helped establish the modern science of pharmacology, continued to practice magic, alchemy, and astrology.
The devastation and dislocation brought by the war also affected the economy. Religious toleration in the Dutch Republic went hand in hand with its widespread trading and cooperative system of government and made it a leader in intellectual and scientific achievement.
Several converging factors caused the European recession of the early s. While religion and the supernatural were still important, they were no longer the central explanation for natural phenomena.
This notion of "constitutionalism" was tied to the idea of a contract that bound the ruler with his subjects, which required the ruler, among other things, to uphold the true religion.AP’s high school European History course is a rigorous, college-level class that provides an opportunity to gain the skills and experience colleges recognize.
and the Advanced Placement Program Section IV: Long Essay Question. Introduction These sample exam questions were originally included in the The College Board iv Sample Questions AP European History Exam Return to Table of Contents.
Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions. Explore timing and format for the AP European History Exam, and review sample questions, Sample student responses to an AP European History long essay question, scored using the AP history rubric. Includes scoring guidelines and commentary.
PDF; MB; AP European History Sample Questions Document. Free-Response Questions. Below are free-response questions from AP European History Exams administered before the course and exam were redesigned in Student responses to past exam free-response questions are available on AP Central.
Short-Answer Response Booklets Review the information about the short-answer response booklets before exam day so that you understand where to write your answers and the amount of space provided for each response.
Additionally, the AP European History Test measures the following skills: • The ability to analyze historical evidence • The ability to express historical understanding in writing.Download